Lithium metal batteries are among the most promising candidates for next-generation high-density energy storage devices due to unrivalled high specific capacity and the lowest reduction potential of lithium metal anode. Estimations are that the global market will grow with a CAGR of 17% and reach the value of USD 100bn by 2025. This growth also depends on solving some of the current challenges. The usage of the lithium metal anode is obstructed by at least three issues; dendritic deposition of lithium during charge, lithium extreme interfacial instability in liquid organic or polymer electrolytes, and large volume expansion of lithium anode during cell operation. Our invention provides a lithium metal anode protective layer, and methods for their fabrication. The protective layer is capable of protecting common anode materials like lithium and lithium alloys from destructive reactions with other battery components.